Even Sega-16, one of the leading sources on all things Sega. This then had knock-on consequences. The misattribution spread to Wikipedia and then across the Internet.
This misattribution is due to lack of consistency with regards to listing kanji for non-English names, says Szczepaniak. All three men have the same phonetic name, Naoto Ohshima, but the OHSHIMA part uses different kanji for each of them ― that is, different Japanese symbols, which have different pictographic meanings, but all sound exactly the same.
It gets more confusing. This problem can also be inver秦皇岛治疗癫痫病那好ted, with different people having exactly the same kanji symbols, but in each case using a different phonetic pronunciation, says Szczepaniak. Shigeru Miyamoto, for instance, was miscredited as Shigeru Miyahon in early NES games. And Szczepaniak adds that even Japanese people find this pronunciation issue confusing ― to the point where many business cards use hiragana to explicitly state the pronunciation of someone s name, and at least one developer, Masatoshi Mitori of Human Entertainment, asks that the kanji for his surname not be listed because his family name uses archaic symbols that nobody recognizes.
Then you have the lack of gendered pronouns in Japanese c醒脑开窍能治好癫痫病吗onversation, which means interviews that mention a colleague named Suzuki-san could be referring to a man or a woman with the surname Suzuki ― and if it s an archived interview then you can t necessarily just ask for clarification. As if that wasn t enough complexity, Japanese credits also have sometimes had nicknames in lieu of real names in them.
Szczepaniak explains that this was not always a case of programmers trying to be cool. Sometimes the publisher ordered it. Sega was especially notorious for this, and Tecmo as well, he says. The reason was to prevent headhunting, since companies were terrified that skilled programmers would be snatched up by rivals, and 癫痫医院手术治疗费用also to prevent later copyright claims for work they had done. Naoto Ohshima said Sega wouldn t allow staff to attribute their real name since it meant Sega had a stronger hold over the rights to any work created in-house.
The failure of credits
The reality is that credits, even as a snapshot, could never properly encapsulate the messiness of games history ― the complicated power dynamics that form within companies and teams and between individuals, as well as the collaborative nature of the medium and the vast formal and informal support structures that lie beneath each company and project.
Roles are often fluid or informal. One person might s治疗癫痫的有效方法有哪些啊tart out on programming but finish as a writer or composer, or something else. When I was researching my book, The Secret History of Mac Gaming, I learned that the final design of the very first Mac game, Alice aka Through the Looking Glass, owed as much to the informal requests and complaints of Macintosh marketing rep Joanna Hoffman (who was the best player in the office) as to the work of its creator Steve Capps.
Similarly, Salvador gives an example where the de facto director of 1994 game Millennium Auction was actually the company s vice president of business development, and they only received special thanks in the credits.